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Flight Instruments: / Airspeed Indicator / Altimeter /
Gyroscopic Principle / The Turn Indicator / Vertical Speed Indicator /
The Heading Indicator / The Attitude Indicator

The flight instruments are designed to enhance the pilots flying experience. Only one instrument would be needed if the aircraft were flown strictly in visual conditions and in the local area. The airspeed indicator is the only instrument that is vital to all phases of flight.

All of the other instruments are supplemental. These instruments enhance the pilots experience by allowing them to do much more with the aircraft. They also allow the pilot to control the aircraft in a much more exacting manner. If the pilot wishes to maintain a specific altitude, then his aircraft must be equipped with an altimeter. If he wishes to fly into an unfamiliar area, a compass would be very useful.

When the pilot wishes to operate in instrument conditions, that is by reference to instruments alone, then all the instruments are necessary. These instruments now become the pilot's sole reference for vertical and horizontal guidance.

This section will discuss each of the flight instruments, how they operate and the errors associated with each of them. Each section has several animated examples of the operating principles and the errors affecting each instrument.

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